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Friday Night Organ: The Red Priest.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, (March 1678–July 1741) We have all heard of Vivaldi, and his compositions “The four Seasons” but how many know he was a Catholic priest, or that he composed music for a exclusively assembly of little orphan girls or that he composed more than forty operas? Anyone ever actually heard a Vivaldi opera? Me neither. He was a giant of the Italian Baroque and now its time to draw aside the current of the man's life. As a preamble let me state that there will be a lot of titles in Italian. I don't have clue what they mean; I thought PREGO was just a kind of sauce... so If Math wants to weigh in an translate be my guest.
Vivaldi was born in Venice, then the capital of the Venetian Republic. He was baptized immediately at birth in his home which led to a belief that his life was somehow in danger. Though the reasons for the immediate baptism are not known for certain, it was done most likely due either to his poor health or to a major earthquake that shook the city that day. (March 4th) In the trauma of the earthquake, Vivaldi's mother may have dedicated him to the priesthood. Until the day he died, Vivaldi's health was problematic...of course it wasn't a problem after that point. One of his symptoms, strettezza di petto ("tightness of the chest"), has been interpreted as a form of asthma. It has been suggested that asthma is the reason he refrained from playing wind instruments. Indeed, it is hard to blow into an Oboe when the reed is clogged up with a big loogie.
Vivaldi had eight siblings with more Italian names than a Godfather movie so we'll just focus on his dad. Giovanni Battista Vivaldi, Antonio's father was a barber before becoming a professional violinist. I know that seems like an odd change of profession but lets recall the city of Cremona, home to the Stradivari and Amati violin makers is a mere 200 miles west of Venice. It was Giovanni who taught Antonio to play the violin and then toured Venice playing the violin with his young son. Antonio was probably taught at an early age, judging by the extensive musical knowledge he had acquired by the age of 24, when he started working at the Ospedale della Pietà. Giovanni Battista was one of the founders of the Sovvegno dei musicisti di Santa Cecilia, an association of musicians.
The president of the Sovvegno was Giovanni Legrenzi, an early Baroque composer and the maestro di cappella at the Basilica of St. Mark. It is possible that Legrenzi gave the young Antonio his first lessons in composition. The Luxembourg scholar Walter Kolneder has discerned the influence of Legrenzi's style in Vivaldi's early liturgical work Laetatus sum, written in 1691 at the age of thirteen. Vivaldi's father may have been a composer himself: in 1689, an opera titled La Fedelt�sfortunata was composed by a Giovanni Battista Rossi the name under which Vivaldi's father had joined the Sovvegno di Santa Cecilia.
In 1693, at the age of fifteen, he began studying to become a priest and was ordained in 1703, aged 25, and was soon nicknamed il Prete Rosso, "The Red Priest". (Rosso is Italian for "red", and would have referred to the color of his hair, a family trait.) Not long after his ordination, in 1704, he was given a dispensation from celebrating Mass because of his ill health. Vivaldi said Mass as a priest only a few times, and appeared to have withdrawn from liturgical duties, though he formally remained a member of the priesthood. He remained committed to Catholicism to the extent that by old age, Ernst Ludwig Gerber (writing in 1792) considered him extraordinarily bigoted. (WAAAAH! I'm soooo triggered!)
In September 1703, the newly ordained Vivaldi became maestro di violino (master of violin) at the Pio Ospedale della Piet (Devout Hospital of Mercy) in Venice, a home for abandoned children.
Over the next thirty years he composed most of his major works while working there. There were four similar institutions in Venice; their purpose was to give shelter and education to children who were abandoned or orphaned, or whose families could not support them. They were financed by funds provided by the Republic. The boys learned a trade and had to leave when they reached the age of fifteen. The girls received a musical education, and the most talented among them stayed and became members of the Ospedale's renowned orchestra and choir. Many of his compositions were written for the all-female music ensemble of the Ospedale della Piet. Vivaldi had worked there as a Catholic priest from 1703 to 1715 and from 1723 to 1740.
Shortly after Vivaldi's appointment, the orphans began to gain appreciation and esteem abroad, too. Vivaldi wrote concertos, cantatas and sacred vocal music for them. These sacred works, which number over 60, are varied: they included solo motets and large-scale choral works for soloists, double chorus, and orchestra. In 1704, the position of teacher of viola all'inglese was added to his duties as violin instructor.The position of maestro di coro, which was at one time filled by Vivaldi, required a lot of time and work. He had to compose an oratorio or concerto at every feast and teach the orphans both music theory and how to play certain instruments. In other words he had a FULL plate!
His relationship with the board of directors of the Ospedale was often strained. The board had to take a vote every year on whether to keep a teacher. The vote on Vivaldi was seldom unanimous, and went 7 to 6 against him in 1709. After a year as a freelance musician, he was recalled by the Ospedale with a unanimous vote in 1711; clearly during his year's absence the board had realized the importance of his role. He became responsible for all of the musical activity of the institution when he was promoted to maestro de' concerti (music director) in 1716.
In 1705, the first collection of his works Opus 1 was published by Giuseppe Sala. It is a collection of 12 sonatas for two violins and basso continuo, in a conventional style. In 1709, a second collection of 12 sonatas for violin and basso continuo appeared涌pus 2. A real breakthrough as a composer came with Opus 3 his first collection of 12 concerti for one, two, and four violins with strings, L'estro armonico which was published in 1711 and dedicated to Grand Prince Ferdinand of Tuscany. The prince sponsored many musicians including Alessandro Scarlatti and George Frideric Handel. He was a musician himself, and Vivaldi probably met him in Venice. L'estro armonico was a resounding success all over Europe. It was followed in 1714 by La stravaganza (Opus 4), a collection of concerti for solo violin and strings dedicated to an old violin student of Vivaldi's, the Venetian noble Vettor Dolfin.
In February 1711, Vivaldi and his father traveled to Brescia, where his setting of the Stabat Mater was played as part of a religious festival. The work seems to have been written in haste: the string parts are simple, the music of the first three movements is repeated in the next three, and not all the text is set. Nevertheless, perhaps in part because of the forced essentially of the music, the work is considered to be one of his early masterpieces. Despite his frequent travels from 1718, the Ospedale paid him 2 sequins, (a gold coin weighing 3.5 grams) to write two concerti a month for the orchestra and to rehearse with them at least five times when in Venice. The orphanage's records show that he was paid for 140 concerti between 1723 and 1733.
In early 18th-century Venice, opera was the most popular musical entertainment. It proved most profitable for Vivaldi. There were several theaters competing for the public's attention. Vivaldi started his career as an opera composer as a sideline: his first opera, Ottone in villa was performed not in Venice, but at the Garzerie Theater in Vicenza in 1713. Coincidentally the same year the plague broke out across the Holy Roman Empire...that WILL affect ticket sales! The following year, Vivaldi became the impresario of the Teatro San Angelo in Venice, where his opera Orlando finto pazzo was performed. The work was not to the public's taste, and it closed after a couple of weeks.
In 1715, he presented Nerone fatto Cesare (now lost), with music by seven different composers, of which he was the leader. The opera contained eleven arias, and was a success. In the late season, Vivaldi planned to put on an opera entirely of his own creation, Arsilda, regina di Ponto, but the state censor blocked the performance. The main character, Arsilda, falls in love with another woman, Lisea, who is pretending to be a man. Vivaldi got the censor to accept the opera the following year, and it was a resounding success. (Yup gender fluidity/lesbianism even in 18th century Venice).
During this period, the Piet commissioned several liturgical works. The most important were two oratorios. Moyses Deus Pharaonis, is now lost. The second, Juditha triumphans, celebrates the victory of the Republic of Venice against the Turks and the recapture of the island of Corfu. Composed in 1716, it is one of his sacred masterpieces. All eleven singing parts were performed by girls of the orphanage, both the female and male roles. Many of the arias include parts for solo instruments羊ecorders, oboes, violas d'amore, and mandolins—that showcased the range of talents of the girls.
Also in 1716, Vivaldi wrote and produced two more operas, L'incoronazione di Dario and La costanza trionfante degli amori e degli odi . The latter was so popular that it performed two years later, re-edited and retitled Artabano re dei Parti . It was also performed in Prague in 1732. In the years that followed, Vivaldi wrote several operas that were performed all over Italy.
Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda
His progressive operatic style caused him some trouble with more conservative musicians such as Benedetto Marcello, a magistrate and amateur musician who wrote a pamphlet denouncing Vivaldi and his operas. The pamphlet, Il teatro alla moda, attacks the composer even as it does not mention him directly. The cover drawing shows a boat (the Sant'Angelo), on the left end of which stands a little angel wearing a priest's hat and playing the violin. The Marcello family claimed ownership of the Teatro Sant'Angelo, and a long legal battle had been fought with the management for its restitution, without success. The obscure text under the engraving mentions non-existent places and names: for example, ALDIVIVA is an anagram of "A. Vivaldi".
In a letter written by Vivaldi to his patron Marchese Bentivoglio in 1737, he makes reference to his "94 operas". Only around 50 operas by Vivaldi have been discovered, and no other documentation of the remaining operas exists. Although Vivaldi may have been exaggerating, it is plausible that, in his dual role of composer and impresario, he may have either written or been responsible for the production of as many as 94 operas揚iven that his career had by then spanned almost 25 years. While Vivaldi certainly composed many operas in his time, he never attained the prominence of other great composers such as Alessandro Scarlatti, Johann Adolph Hasse, Leonardo Leo, and Baldassare Galuppi, as evidenced by his inability to keep a production running for an extended period of time in any major opera house.
In 1718, Vivaldi was offered a prestigious new position as Maestro di Cappella of the court of prince Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt, governor of Mantua, in the northwest of Italy. He moved there for three years and produced several operas. In 1721, he was in Milan, where he presented the pastoral drama La Silvia; nine arias from it survive. He visited Milan again the following year with the oratorio L'adorazione delli tre re magi al bambino Ges (now lost). In 1722 he moved to Rome, where he introduced his operas' new style. The new pope Benedict XIII invited Vivaldi to play for him. In 1725, Vivaldi returned to Venice, where he produced four operas in the same year.
During this period Vivaldi wrote the Four Seasons, four violin concertos that give musical expression to the seasons of the year. Though three of the concerti are wholly original, the first, "Spring", borrows motifs from a Sinfonia in the first act of Vivaldi's contemporaneous opera Il Giustino. The inspiration for the concertos was probably the countryside around Mantua. They were a revolution in musical conception: in them Vivaldi represented flowing creeks, singing birds (of different species, each specifically characterized), barking dogs, buzzing mosquitoes, crying shepherds, storms, drunken dancers, silent nights, hunting parties from both the hunters' and the prey's point of view, frozen landscapes, ice-skating children, and warming winter fires. Each concerto is associated with a sonnet, possibly by Vivaldi, describing the scenes depicted in the music. They were published as the first four concertos in a collection of twelve, Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione, Opus 8, published in Amsterdam by Michel-Charles Le C鈩e in 1725.
At the height of his career, Vivaldi received commissions from European nobility and royalty. The serenata (cantata) Gloria e Imeneo was commissioned in 1725 by the French ambassador to Venice in celebration of the marriage of Louis XV. The following year, another serenata, La Sena festeggiante was written for and premiered at the French embassy as well, celebrating the birth of the French royal princesses, Henriette and Louise Élisabeth. Vivaldi's Opus 9, La cetra, was dedicated to Emperor Charles VI. In 1728, Vivaldi met the emperor while the emperor was visiting Trieste to oversee the construction of a new port. Charles admired the music of the Red Priest so much that he is said to have spoken more with the composer during their one meeting than he spoke to his ministers in over two years. He gave Vivaldi the title of knight, a gold medal and an invitation to Vienna. Vivaldi gave Charles a manuscript copy of La cetra, a set of concerti almost completely different from the set of the same title published as Opus 9. The printing was probably delayed, forcing Vivaldi to gather an improvised collection for the emperor.
Vivaldi traveled to Vienna and Prague in 1730, where his opera Farnace was presented; it garnered six revivals. But like many composers of the time, Vivaldi faced financial difficulties in his later years. His compositions were no longer held in such high esteem as they once had been in Venice; changing musical tastes quickly made them outmoded. In response, Vivaldi chose to sell off sizable numbers of his manuscripts at paltry prices to finance his migration to Vienna.The reasons for Vivaldi's departure from Venice are unclear, but it seems likely that, after the success of his meeting with Emperor Charles VI, he wished to take up the position of a composer in the imperial court. However, the Emperor died soon after Vivaldi's arrival depriving him of a royal sponsor.
Soon afterwards, Vivaldi became impoverished and died during the night of 27/28 July 1741, aged 63,of "internal infection". On 28 July, Vivaldi was buried in a simple grave in a burial ground that was owned by the public hospital fund. His funeral took place at St. Stephen's Cathedral. Contrary to popular legend, the young Joseph Haydn had nothing to do with his burial, since no music was performed on that occasion. The cost of his funeral with a 'Kleingeläut' was 19 Gulden 45 Kreuzer which was rather expensive for the lowest class of peal of bells.
Vivaldi was buried next to Karlskirche, a baroque church in an area which is now part of the site of the TU Wien. The house where he lived in Vienna has since been destroyed; the Hotel Sacher is built on part of the site. Memorial plaques have been placed at both locations, as well as a Vivaldi "star" in the Viennese Musikmeile and a monument at the Rooseveltplatz.
The Four Seasons scored for YOU GUESSED IT, Organ:
Autumn performed on the largest Church pipe organ in the world:
Winter, performed by John Scott at Basilica De Santa Maria Elche Spain
Spring, again performed by John Scott at St Paul's Church, Royton.
Summer performed by the GREAT John Scott, Hereford Cathedral: