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June 15, 1878: Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs which becomes the basis of motion pictures  

 

GregBO
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15/06/2020 8:25 pm  

On June 15, 1878, Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs; the study becomes the basis of motion pictures.  Muybridge eventually managed to take a series of photographs of a running horse with a battery of cameras in a line along the track and published the results as The Horse in Motion on cabinet cards.

An animated GIF of a photographic sequence shot by Eadweard Muybridge in 1887. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as movies recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.

The Horse in Motion is a series of cabinet cards by Eadweard Muybridge, including six cards that each show a sequential series of six to twelve "automatic electro-photographs" depicting the movement of a horse. Muybridge shot the photographs in June 1878. An additional card reprinted the single image of the horse "Occident" trotting at high speed, which had previously been published by Muybridge in 1877.

Occident. Owned by Leland Stanford. Driven by Jas. Tennant. (1877 cabinet card)

The series became the first example of chronophotography, an early method to photographically record the passing of time, mainly used to document the different phases of locomotion for scientific study. It formed an important step in the development of motion pictures.  Muybridge's work was commissioned by Leland Stanford, the industrialist, former Governor of California and horseman, who was interested in horse gait analysis.

"Abe Edgington," owned by Leland Stanford; driven by C. Marvin, trotting at a 2-24 gait over the Palo Alto track, 15th June, 1878

Muybridge arranged the cameras along a track parallel to the horse's path. Muybridge used 24 cameras which were 27 inches (69 cm) apart. The shutters were controlled by trip wires triggered by the horse's legs. The photographs were taken in succession one twenty-fifth of a second apart, with the shutter speeds calculated to be less than 1/2000 s. The jockey Domm set the mare to travel at a speed of 1:40, which meant that she was galloping at a mile per 1 minute and 40 seconds, equivalent to 36 miles per hour (58 km/h). Muybridge produced the negatives onsite; when the press noticed the broken straps on Sallie's saddle in the negatives, they became convinced of the prints' authenticity. The images showed the mare lifted all four legs off the ground at certain points during the gallop.

 

​"What we have done for ourselves alone dies with us; what we have done for others and the world remains and is immortal." -Albert Pike

​"​My father didn't tell me how to live; he lived, and let me watch him do it.​" - Clarence Buddinton Kelland


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GregBO
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15/06/2020 8:30 pm  

Owing to the larger image size, the cabinet card steadily increased in popularity during the second half of the 1860s and into the 1870s, replacing the carte de visite as the most popular form of portraiture. The cabinet card was large enough to be easily viewed from across the room when typically displayed on a cabinet, which is probably why they became known as such in the vernacular. Whatever the name, the popular print format joined the photograph album as a fixture in the late 19th-century Victorian parlor.

 

The reverse side of the card as seen above.

Early in its introduction, the cabinet card ushered in the temporary disuse of the photographic album which had come into existence commercially with the carte de visite. Photographers began employing artists to retouch photographs by altering the negative before making the print to hide facial defects revealed by the new format. Small stands and photograph frames for the tabletop replaced the heavy photograph album. Photo album manufacturers responded by producing albums with pages primarily for cabinet cards with a few pages in the back reserved for the old family carte de visite prints.

For nearly three decades after the 1860s, the commercial portraiture industry was dominated by the carte de visite and cabinet card formats. In the decade before 1900, the number and variety of card photograph styles expanded in response to declining sales. Manufacturers of standardized card stock and print materials hoped to stimulate sales and retain public interest in card photographs. However, the public increasingly demanded outdoor and candid photographs with enlarged prints which they could frame or smaller unmounted snapshots they could collect in scrapbooks.

A cabinet card from 1896

Owing in part to the immense popularity of the affordable Kodak Box Brownie camera, first introduced in 1900, the public increasingly began taking their own photographs, and thus the popularity of the cabinet card declined.

​"What we have done for ourselves alone dies with us; what we have done for others and the world remains and is immortal." -Albert Pike

​"​My father didn't tell me how to live; he lived, and let me watch him do it.​" - Clarence Buddinton Kelland


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The Evil Genius
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Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 2001
15/06/2020 8:47 pm  

MY GOD! a film of a black jockey! HOW stereotypical! I'M TRIGGERED! AAAAHHHHHH

How is THAT for virtue signally? 


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GregBO
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Joined: 2 years ago
Posts: 3814
16/06/2020 2:52 am  

Genius you missed your shot on this one. 

Stable boys were normally relegated to cleaning up the barns as they were not trusted with the care and protection of race horses, race horses were and remain valuable property. 

That was relegated to white men in the late 1800's, race horses were and are valuable pieces of property, just in case you missed the early point.  Guess you missed the line describing the former of California being a horseman.  Pity, guess it was just another part of the post that you missed.

But NFG, can't take anything posted or replied to as serious.  That's what an open forum is for, free and open exchange of ideas, opinions and sometimes bullshit.  Sometimes you learn something new and sometimes you don't, ultimately however it's NFG.

​"What we have done for ourselves alone dies with us; what we have done for others and the world remains and is immortal." -Albert Pike

​"​My father didn't tell me how to live; he lived, and let me watch him do it.​" - Clarence Buddinton Kelland


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